Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League

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Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL) (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ "Bangladesh Worker-Peasant's People's League"; বাকশাল) was a political front comprising Bangladesh Awami League, Communist Party of Bangladesh, National Awami Party (Mozaffar) and Jatiyo League.[1]

The political platform was floated as the national party of Bangladesh with an announcement made by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 24 February 1975, after the theory of Second Revolution was placed and the fourth amendment of the constitution was made on 25 January 1975.[2] In addition, with the presidential order, all other political parties were outlawed with the formation of BaKSAL.[3]

The party advocated state socialism as a part of the group of reforms under the theory of Second Revolution. BaKSAL was the decision making council to achieve the objectives of the Second Revolution.[4]

BaKSAL was dissolved after the assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.[5]

With the end of BaKSAL, all the political parties who merged themselves with BaKSAL including Awami League became independent political parties.


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his Awami League won a landslide victory in the 1973 election. Backing for the government waned, however, as supporters became disillusioned by widespread corruption.[6] In the face of growing unrest, on 28 December 1974 Mujibur Rahman declared a state of emergency, which gave him the power to ban any political group.[7] He pushed the Fourth Amendment to the constitution through parliament on 25 January 1975. It dissolved all political parties and gave him the authority to institute one-party rule.[8][9][10]


On 24 February 1975, Mujib formed a new party, Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), which all MPs were required to join.[6][11] Any MP who missed a parliamentary session, abstained, or failed to vote with the party would lose their seat.[12] All civilian government employees, professionals, and trade union leaders were pressed to join the party.[6] All other political organisations were banned.[12] Most Awami League politicians and many from other parties joined BaKSAL, seeing no other way to retain any political power.[6] The Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal, Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party, Purbo Bangla Sammobadi Dal-Marxbadi-Leninbadi (East Bengal Communist Party Marxist–Leninist), East Pakistan Communist Party, and Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist) did not join BaKSAL. According to political science professor Talukder Maniruzzaman, BASKSAL was in practice "the Awami League under a different name".[13]

BaKSAL, the new national party, was scheduled to replace officially the nation's other political organisations, whether those political parties agreed or not, and associations on 1 September 1975.

Organizationally, President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the BaKSAL chairman, appointed for the national party a fifteen-member executive committee, a 120-member central committee, and five front organisations, namely, Jatiya Krishak League, Jatiya Sramik League, Jatiya Mahila League, Jatiya Juba League and Jatiya Chhatra League (peasants, workers, women, youth, and students respectively).[13] All members of the executive committee and central committee were to enjoy the status of ministers. BaKSAL was also designed to overhaul the administrative system of the country to make it people-oriented.

Executive Committee

Central Committee

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  2. Syed Nazrul Islam
  3. Muhammad Mansur Ali
  4. Abdul Malik Ukil
  5. Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad
  6. A.H.M Kamaruzzaman
  7. Kazi Linchon
  8. Mahmudullah
  9. Abdus Samad Azad
  10. M. Yousuf Ali
  11. Phani Bhushan Majumder
  12. Kamal Hossain
  13. Sohrab Husin
  14. Abdul Mannan
  15. Abdur Rab Serniabat
  16. Manaranjan Dhar
  17. Abdul Matin
  18. Asaduzzanan
  19. Md Korban Ali
  20. Dr. Azizul Rahman Mallik
  21. Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  22. Tofael Ahmed
  23. Shah Moazzam Hossain
  24. Abdul Momin Talukdar
  25. Dewan Farid Gazi
  26. Professor Nurul Islam Choudhry
  27. Taheruddin Thakur
  28. Moslemuddin Khan
  29. Professor Abu Sayeed
  30. MD Nurul Islam Manju
  31. KM Obaidur Rahman
  32. Dr. Khitish Chandra Mandal
  33. Reazuddin Ahmad
  34. M. Baitullah
  35. Rahul Quddus (Secretary)
  36. Zillur Rahman
  37. Mohiuddin Ahmad MP
  38. Sheikh Fazlul Haque Mani
  39. Abdur Razzaq
  40. Sheikh Shahidul Islam
  41. Anwar Choudhry
  42. Syeda Sajeda Chowdhury
  43. Taslima Abed
  44. Abdur Rahim
  45. Abdul Awal
  46. Lutfur Rahman
  47. A.K. Muzibur Rahman
  48. Dr. Mofiz Choudhry
  49. Dr. Allauddin
  50. Dr. Ahsanul Haq
  51. Raushan Ali
  52. Azizur Rahman Akkas
  53. Sheikh Abdul Aziz
  54. Salahuddin Yusuf
  55. Michael Sushil Adhikari
  56. Kazi Abdul Hakim
  57. Mollah Jalaluddin
  58. Shamsuddin Mollah
  59. Gour Chandra Bala
  60. Gazi Ghulam Mustafa
  61. Shamsul Haq
  62. Shamsuzzoha
  63. Rafiqueuddin Bhuiya
  64. Syed Ahmad
  65. Shamsur Rahman Khan
  66. Nurul Haq
  67. Kazi Zahirul Qayyum
  68. Capt.(Retd) Sujjat Ali
  69. M.R. Siddiqui
  70. MA Wahab
  71. Chittaranjan Sutar,
  72. Sayeda Razia Banu
  73. Ataur Rahman Khan
  74. Khandakar Muhammad Illyas
  75. Mong Pru Saire
  76. Professor Muzaffar Ahmed Chowdhury
  77. Ataur Rahman
  78. Pir Habibur Rahman
  79. Syed Altaf Hossain
  80. Muhammad Farhad
  81. Matia Chowdhury
  82. Hazi Danesh
  83. Taufiq Inam (Secretary)
  84. Nurul Islam (Secretary)
  85. Fayezuddin Ahmed (Secretary)
  86. Mahbubur Rahman (Secretary)
  87. Abdul Khaleque
  88. Muzibul Haq (Secretary)
  89. Abdur Rahim (Secretary)
  90. Moinul Islam (Secretary)
  91. Sayeeduzzaman (Secretary)
  92. Anisuzzaman (Secretary)
  93. Dr. A Sattar (Secretary)
  94. M.A Samad (Secretary)
  95. Abu Tahir (Secretary)
  96. Al Hossaini (Secretary)
  97. Dr Tajul Hossain (Secretary)
  98. Motiur Rahman. Chairman. TCB
  99. Maj. Gen K.M. Safiullah
  100. Air Vice Marshal Abdul Karim Khandker
  101. Commodore M.H. Khan
  102. Maj Gen. Khalilur Rahman
  103. A.K. Naziruddin
  104. Dr. Abdul Matin Chowdhury
  105. Dr. Mazharul Islam
  106. Dr. Sramul Haq
  107. Badal Ghosh
  108. ATM Syed Hossain
  109. Nurul Islam
  110. Dr. Nilima Ibrahim
  111. Dr. Nurul Islam PG Hospital
  112. Obaidul Huq Editor Observer
  113. Anwar Hossain Manju Editor Ittefaq
  114. Mizanur Rahman BPI
  115. Manawarul Islam
  116. Abu Thaer Bhuiyan
  117. Brig. A. N. M. Nuruzzaman DG Jatiya Rakkhi Bahini
  118. Kamruzzaman teachers Association
  119. Dr. Mazhar Ali Kadri


Many restrictive regulations coming from the BaKSAL included the promulgation of the Newspaper Ordinance (June 1975; Annulment of Declaration) under which the declarations of all but four state owned newspapers were annulled. The Fourth Amendment was a direct attack on the press freedom which allowed only four newspapers (Dainik Bangla, Bangladesh Observer, The Daily Ittefaq, and Bangladesh Times – these four newspapers were, in fact, owned and managed by the State) to continue their publication and banned the rest of the press and newspaper industries. It brought the whole news media completely under the absolute control of the government.[14]


The party carried out independently until 1991, when almost all of its party leaders deserted the organisation to merge with the Bangladesh Awami League.[15]


Lawrence Lifschultz wrote in the Far Eastern Economic Review in 1974 that Bangladeshis thought that "the corruption and malpractices and plunder of national wealth" was "unprecedented".[16]


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  1. Rono, Haider Akbar Khan (2010). Śatābdī pēriẏē শতাব্দী পেরিয়ে (in Bengali). Taraphadara prakashani. p. 335. ISBN 984-779-027-2. 
  2. Ahmed, Moudud (2015). Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. University Press Limited. p. 284. ISBN 978-984-506-226-8. 
  3. Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Enskat, Mike; Spiess, Clemens (2004). Political parties of South Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 226. 
  4. "Bangladesh: The Second Revolution". Time. 10 February 1975. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  5. "Bangabandhu: a forbidden name for 16yrs". The Daily Star. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Khan, Zillur R. (2001). "From Mujib to Zia, Elite Politics in Bangladesh". In Ahmed, Rafiuddin. Religion, Identity & Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. International Academic Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-1-58868-081-5. ... landslide victory of the Awami League in the 1973 elections ... [those] who were earlier inspired by the charisma of Sheikh Mujib grew increasingly restive in view of what they viewed as widespread corruption ... making it mandatory for members of parliament to join the single national party, called the Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (BaKSAL), if they wanted to retain their seats ... most Awami Leaguers, and many others from the other parties, decided to join the BaKSAL. Between Mujib's BaKSAL and total political oblivion, few were left with any choice ... All higher bureaucrats, professional people and trade union leaders were urged to join. 
  7. "State of emergency announced in Dacca". The Tuscaloosa News. Associated Press. 29 December 1974. p. 6A. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  8. "Sheikh Assumes Absolute Rule in Bangladesh". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. Associated Press. 26 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  9. "Mujib names his Govt". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press-Reuter. 28 January 1975. p. 4. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  10. "Bangladesh President Takes Over". The Daily Herald. Provo, Utah. United Press International. 24 February 1975. p. 8. Retrieved 4 January 2016 – via  Template:Open access
  11. "'Second Revolution' Is Sham: No Real Change Seen in Bangladesh". The Capital Times. Madison, Wisconsin. Los Angeles Times News Service. 28 February 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 4 January 2016.  Template:Open access
  12. 12.0 12.1 "One man, one party govern Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 January 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Maniruzzaman, Talukder (February 1976). "Bangladesh in 1975: The Fall of the Mujib Regime and Its Aftermath". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 16 (2): 119–129. doi:10.1525/as.1976.16.2.01p0153p. JSTOR 2643140. 
  14. Dowlah, Caf (2016-10-19). The Bangladesh Liberation War, the Sheikh Mujib Regime, and Contemporary Controversies. Lexington Books. p. 124. ISBN 9781498534192. 
  15. "Near East & South Asia: Bangladesh" (PDF). JPRS Report. 1: 10. 12 September 1991. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  16. "Tread Warily to the Dream". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 6 February 2010.